ROUGH LEMON Citrus x taitensis Other names: Bush Lemon, Wild Lemon, Rangpur Lime Distribution: Coastal NSW and Qld. Native substitutes, which are butterfly attractive, include the Prostanther a species (Native Mint Bushes), Grevillea species and … Even under-developed fruit can produce viable seeds which a spread by birds and other animals (4). The older, invasive variety has “wings” on the stems, while the newer one does not. Bark on older trunks becomes soft and corky, whereas young branches are smooth in texture and covered in sharp spines (3). The extended flowering period lasts from winter to summer and sporadically over autumn (3). Distribution: Coastal NSW & Qld, and possibly other states. GOLDEN RAINTREE Koelreuteria elegans subsp. Distribution: From NSW mid-north coast to Qld. Bark on older stems changes to a softer texture, loses the prickles and shows longitudinal fissures (2). Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; more than 20cm long, heart-shaped with broadly toothed, lobed to nearly entire margins, woolly hairy when young, normally hairless and firm when mature. A long term interest into our native forest tree species provided the photos, descriptions and measurements for any tree species shown. The berry is divided into 8 to 10 segments and seeds are up to 12mm long. New Holland Publishers: May 2019 Plants can't be all to blame though, the root system of a plant is designed to track … and ACT. Lilly Pillys have been a common choice for privacy in Australian gardens for decades. The Native Olive (Olea paniculata) is shown on Page 8 and the Long-leaved or Mock Olive (Notelaea longifolia) is listed on Page 7. cuspidata [Olea africana] Other names: Brown Olive, Wild Olive The fleshy and edible fruit (a berry) turns bright red in colour when fully ripe and measures up to 2 cm across. Trees … See Flower Characteristics Page and Leaf Characteristics Page for information on terms used. Mostly six pairs of fine lateral veins are visible on both leaf surfaces. Distribution: Naturalised in Vic., NSW & Qld. Distribution: From the NSW mid-north coast to Qld. The abundant fruit produced is eaten by a range of native birds and thereby widely dispersed (4). This adaptable long-lived shrub invades the margins of rainforests and many drier environments from temperate to subtropical regions in Australia. Individual flowers measure up to 15 mm in diameter and are held on panicles springing from the very end of young branches (terminal) (3). The rough pimpled and thick skin turns yellow or sometimes orange red at full maturity. Distribution: Regarded as an invasive species in areas of Vic, NSW and Qld. Mid rib and lateral veins are yellowish in colour, prominently raised and covered in fine rusty hair on lower leaf surface (5). It is a small to medium sized tree more than 10m tall, which is deciduous over winter but may still be flowering (Picture 1). Leaflet stalks (petiolules) are up to 3 mm long (5). Petiole is less than 1cm long. Native replacement species: Brown Gardenia/Yellow Mangosteen (Randia fitzalanii), Bolwarra (Eupomatia laurina) or Native Guava (Rhodomyrtus psidioides). As the rigid clay pipes settle over time, the joints open up & leak and eventually the roots may grow inside. Note: The native Brush Senna/Cassia (Senna acclinis Page 3) has flat pod (4). See also; Small-leaved Privet (Ligustrum sinense) below on this page. Native replacement species: Native Tamarind (Diploglottis australis ), Pink Lace Flower (Archidendron grandiflorum). Most species are very hardy and grow better in cool conditions. • All Creative Designs Nambucca & Coffs Harbour® presents web optimized tree images for identification purposes. Distribution: SA, Vic., NSW and subtropical Qld. ©2020 Images and text descriptions from this web page are not to be redistributed or reproduced in any way, shape, or form without Flower -   Fruit -  and Bark Identification Web Pages for explanations of botanical definitions and concepts. This noxious species originates from South America and is fast growing reaching height of 4 to 5m (Picture 1). It has a prolific reproduction rate due to the large amounts of fruit and viable seeds produced (Picture 1). Lomatia silaifolia is found across much of eastern Australia. Bark is grey in colour on older limbs to more olive green on young growth, and apart from some blisters (lenticels) firm and rather smooth in texture, (2). Leaf apex is acute, base shape is rounded or cordate. The pinnate compound leaf consists of up to 12 leaflets, which are; up to 15 cm long, mostly broad elliptic in shape with entire margins, dark green and hairy on top, paler green and sparsely hairy beneath, strong and firm in texture. The fruit, a flattened and ribbed pod, is up to 20 cm long, brown in colour and hairy on the outside. They are up to 5 cm long and support small yellow anthers (3). The large bipinnate (twice-divided) compound leaf can feature more than 60 individual leaflets, which are; up to 10 cm long, broadly lance-shaped (lanceolate) or ovate (egg-shaped) with toothed to nearly entire margins, mostly hairless, dull mid-green on top, only slightly paler green beneath and firm in texture. Distribution: A serious weed problem from the NSW south coast to northern Qld. It contains a sweet white pulp and edible seeds (4). Fresh bark has a smooth texture and is a reddish brown in colour, weathering to grey before shedding in thin flakes (2). Masses of flat seedpods are produced over autumn, which can reach more than 40 cm in length. See also: Winter Senna Senna pendula var. Lomatia silaifolia, commonly known as crinkle bush or parsley fern, is a shrub native to Australia. The leaf apex terminates in a stiff curved (hooked) tip (3,4 & 5). Native to North America, it is a deciduous and fast growing tree reaching up to 25m in Shrubs create the perfect addition for smaller gardens where low lying yet full plants are preferred. Find the best tall hedges for your garden - native, exotic, evergreen, flowering, for sun and shade, frost and drought tolerant. cuspidata) are inadequately researched. Lilly Pilly. AFRICAN OLIVE Olea europaea subsp. You are viewing Invasive, Noxious Species,,,,,, Rainforest of Australia's East Coast Book. The egg-shaped drupe is up to 5 mm long and changes from a light green to a shiny black colour when fully mature in late spring and summer (3 & 4). When the fruit is eaten by native pigeons, doves and other birds, the germination rate of the 2 seeds (coffee beans) per fruit is greatly enhanced (3). It is an invasive species; in warmer rainforests types, in transitions zones to moist, tall open forests and is often encountered in regrowth along the coastline (Picture 1). All are multi-stemmed, hardy and vigorous shrubs up to 4m tall, which are native to Central and South America. Note: The native Brush Senna/Cassia (Senna acclinis) has flat pod. The fruit, a papery capsule, is about 5 cm long and changes from a yellowish green and pink to brown at full maturity. Leaf apex is rounded showing a very fine tip, base shape is cuneate. Distribution: South coast and tablelands of NSW to southern Qld. The native Australian Syzygium – commonly called lilly pilly – is a superb hedging and screening plant in all situations. PRINCESS TREE Paulownia tomentosa Other names: Paulownia, Foxglove-tree, Chinese Empress Tree We make an effort to properly classify any noxious tree or shrub species shown on this web page and cross referenced our images using these Resources to ensure that botanical identification is accurate. After a period of being leafless (deciduous) masses of flowers are borne on panicles up to 30cm long, which appear in terminal positions, i.e. › Plants. Abundant fruit is produced over autumn, which is a fleshy drupe, rounded in shape and measuring up to 5 mm across. Pure white flowers dominated by yellow topped stamens are held on long, individual stalks and appear over spring (3). cattleianum Other names: Strawberry Guava This species originating from China has a long history of naturalisation in warmer parts around the world and has also become a weed problem along Australia's east coast. They bloom over summer into autumn (3). It is probable that Koelreuteria paniculata has similar invasive qualities. The fruit is a cylindrical pod up to 10 cm long, which changes from green to black at full maturity. The image shows densely hairy flower buds before opening, the inset shows the ovary and style within the bud (left). Bird's nest fern (Asplenium australasicum) With a leathery rosette of foliage, the bird’s nest fern is … Climbers with non invasive roots. The latter one is sold in nurseries and garden centers and does not spread and is not invasive. Descriptions and all images copyright ©2020 by world wide rights reserved. Distribution: Vic, NSW & Qld (introduced from Asia and declared a noxious weed). BRAZILIAN CHERRY Eugenia uniflora Other names: Surinam Cherry The smooth petiole is up to 15mm long. What roots do. Simple leaves have an alternate arrangement, with sometimes 2 leaves emerging from the same node (3 & 4). at the end of young branches. It was introduced from Central America and has become an invasive species in the subtropical regions of northern NSW (1). In cultivation it is rarely more than 10m tall, but in a native forest situation it may reach 20m when competing for available sunlight (1). Flower can appear all year round, but are most abundant in autumn (3). Transplanting them into local waterways could result in these invasive plants over-wintering during mild winters and negatively impacting native wetland and water-side vegetation. Whilst all trees have root systems that can be potentially dangerous to plumbing, some are much more likely than others. Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; up to 8 cm long, obovate in shape with entire (inrolled) margins, very glossy, hairless, rather thick and leathery in texture. The Radiata Pine is one of 5 species belonging to genus Pinus that are listed as invasive weeds in Australia. Detailed descriptions that are useful in identification of non-native, invasive plants are given for each species. Leaf -   Similar to the native Three-veined Laurel Cryptocarya triplinervis (5). Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 25 cm long, mostly elliptic in shape with entire margins, hairy, dull green on top, grey/green, densely woolly hairy beneath and relatively thick but soft in texture. It has an extensive natural distribution range that covers most of Africa and parts of Asia (1). It will invade a range of different habitats including; warmer types of native rainforests, transition zones, wet tall eucalypt forests, riparian vegetation (regrowth) and stream banks (Picture 1). It is a small upright shrub which grows 1-2 metres high with glaucous smooth stems. They can reach up to 2.5 cm in diameter and feature 5 rounded petals, pure white in colour and a large number of stamens (3). Bark is beige and except for stout sharp prickles and some blisters is relatively smooth in texture (2). Size: 13 cm wide x 18 cm high. Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 12 cm long, elliptic to slightly oblanceolate (reverse lance-shaped) with crenate, inrolled margins, dark green semi-glossy on top, paler, grey-green beneath, hairless, thick, strong and leathery in texture. Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; up to 12cm long, varied in shape from broadly elliptic to more ovate with entire margins, dark green and glossy on top, paler greyish green and dull beneath, smooth and leathery in texture. Large ideal shade tree. Distribution: A serious noxious weed in NSW and Qld. It is ellipsoid in shape (olive-shaped with flattened ends) and up 1.5 cm long, changing from green to a bright red when fully ripe. Note: The closely related Koelreuteria paniculata shares the common name with the species described and differs that leaves are pinnate (only once divided). Bark on older stems is brown in colour with a finely rough texture due small horizontal blisters (lenticels) and fine vertical ridges (2). See Flower Characteristics Page and Leaf Characteristics Page for information on terms used. It has the strangler like ability to overtake a host tree and thereby reaching a height of 20m or more (Picture 1). WILD TOBACCO BUSH Solanum mauritianum Wisteria (Wisteria chinensis) Getty. Venation is prominent and raised on lower leaf surface (5). Bark on older stems is grey in colour, hard and finely rough in texture (2). Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 8 cm long, broadly elliptic or ovate in shape with entire margins, dark green, glossy on top, pale green to blotchy grey/white (more evident on young leaves) beneath, hairless, not very thick, but strong, rather leathery in texture and strongly camphor scented when crushed. None of the trees are native to Australia, but their seeds are all available from nurseries, and will thrive across in our country. • Purchase non-invasive or native plants … Distribution: Widespread in Vic, NSW & Qld. Bark on the trunk of older trees is brown and becomes very rough, scaly and flaky. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Introduced from Central America. If not pruned to size, it can grow to the height of a small tree about 10m tall (Picture 1). Size: 23 cm high x 15 cm wide RADIATA PINE Pinus radiata Other names: Monterey Pine The rounded fruit (a drupe) changes from white, over pink to a vivid red in colour when fully ripe and measures about 1 cm across (4). The 3 lower stamens have long curved yellow filaments topped by prominent brown coloured anthers (3). It is a tall shrub, which under favourable conditions can reach the height of a small tree with large glossy leaves crowding at the end of branches. This web page shows enlarged views of full tree, bark, leaf, flower and/or fruit samples of introduced and invasive (sometimes noxious) tree species spreading in Australian … The very straight and rigid leaf stalk can be more than 15 cm long, leaflet stalk is up to 1 cm long. 5 or 6 strong filaments topped by broad, white coloured anthers are characteristic (3). This species has naturalised in many parts of the country as the winged seeds are ideal for aerial dispersion. It self-seeds readily and has become a serious weed in rainforest areas of Australia. WINTER SENNA Senna pendula var. Apex is long acuminate, base shape is cuneate. This member of the Citrus genus originates in Asia and has naturalised in many parts of the world. Venation is raised on lower leaf surface, showing domatia (inset 5) as hollow swellings along the centre vein (5). Given the right conditions, morning glories can become invasive. This species was introduced from Taiwan as an ornamental garden species and is a close relative to the native Umbrella Tree Schefflera actinophylla (See Page 11). This free resource is constantly extended, revised and updated. It can grow up to 4m when competing for available sunlight beneath a closed forest canopy, but under less favourable conditions it only reaches about 2m in height at full maturity (Picture 1). Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Distribution: Has been declared as a noxious weed along the east coast from southern NSW to northern Qld. CORAL BERRY Ardisia crenata LOQUAT Eriobotrya japonica Other names: Japanese medlar, Bibasse Ferns are a great start to sprucing up your inner courtyard; they are often slow growing and … Except for the midrib, venation is rather faint. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. It was introduced from Central America as an ornamental plant, but has spread into native habitats such as, margins of rainforests, moist tall forests (sclerophyll) and is frequently found along roadsides and in regrowth areas (1). Quick facts about the Frangipani tree: Deciduous or semi … A broad rounded protrusion at the apex is common. Descriptions and all images copyright ©2020 by world wide rights reserved. It is very hardy and will germinate in full sunlight even on poorer soils, but the low light intensity found under a closed rainforest canopy halts germination. Flowers are borne on tightly packed panicles at the very end of young branches. Simple leaves with an opposite arrangement are; up to 5cm long, varied in shape from elliptic to more ovate with undulating margins, dark green, glossy on top, paler green, sparsely hairy beneath (especially younger leaves), smooth and slightly leathery in texture. ‘Spring Promise’ and B. Bark on older stems is a light grey in colour and has a firm, finely rough texture due to small hard blisters and fine cracks (2). Pinnate venation is clearly visible on both surfaces (5). Umbel shaped heads on long stalks hold 20 or more individual flowers in a range of colours, where the red flowered variation (shown) is the most toxic to livestock (3). Flower heads are terminal (appearing at the very end of branches) and except for the mauve or more purple coloured petals are densely hairy (3). Note: There are a number of different cultivars in existence, which might be spineless and feature pinnate compound leaves with larger leaflets. Older specimens develop an intricately branching crown and multiple trunks arising from a common base are a regular feature (a suckering habit). The common stalk (peduncle) measures up to 5 cm and individual stalks (pedicels) are 2 to 3 cm long. On older trunks bark becomes rough, scaly (tessellated) and furrowed in texture (2). The prolific growth rate, an abundance of fruit produced at any time of the year and its toxicity to livestock make this shrub a weed of national significance. Individual flowers are up to 6cm long, pale violet or purple to nearly white with coloured hues and resemble a Fox Glove flower. Native with non-invasive roots. Leaf base shape is often asymmetric. Camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora) From China, Taiwan and Japan this evergreen tree grows up to 18 metres (60’) high and nine metres (30’) wide. Distribution: Reported to have invaded native habitat in northern NSW and southern Qld, and is on a weed alert for warmer regions all over Australia. This species introduced as a fodder tree to Australia in the 19th century was made more popular by the perma culture HONEY LOCUST Gleditsia triacanthos Pinnate compound leaves feature (mostly) 6 or 8 oppositely arranged leaflets, with upright glands present at each junction along the grooved rachis. ARABIAN COFFEE Coffea arabica Simple leaves with an alternate arrangement are; up to 12cm long, elliptic in shape with crenate to nearly entire margins, hairless, dark green and glossy on top, strongly scented when crushed. Leaf apex is acute, base shape is cuneate (wedge-shaped). If unchecked it can form dense stands on creek and river banks in a relative short time and suppress native vegetation in the process (2). europaea). Numerous white individual flowers are arranged on large panicles up to 25 cm long. covered in branching and very sharp spines more than 20 cm long, individual spines are also present on young branches.